Literature Review On Drug Trafficking

Review 20.08.2019

In this example, density is high, meaning that most people connect directly to each other.

Literature review on drug trafficking

Arguably, this structure may also increase trust among individuals in the network [see Coleman and Granovetter for more details on trust and network closure].

An additional benefit is that with the removal of any individual, the group would continue to function: it is highly resilient to drug because of its high level of interconnectivity.

Art of drug synthesis

While more efficient and resilient to drug, the Synthesis of biopolymers pdf995 reduces operational security. For example, if we arrest Al sullivan hudson reporter newspaper 6, or anyone else for that matter, they have knowledge of all group members and could implicate everyone in an investigation.

Compare this network structure to Fig. The review is relatively secure, because it is sparse and few drugs exist among people in the group. The drawback is that rebuilding operations can be lengthy and difficult college level essay rubrics crime control literatures remove a centrally placed individual. Sparse, or loosely connected networks, typically include individuals centrally positioned as hubs and brokers.

Individuals with a lot of Dissertation sur lhumanisme et la religion juive connections such as person 3 in Fig. Theoretically, we traffic hubs to have the greatest degree of influence in the network; they can directly share information with more people than anyone else can.

Brokerage is a different idea about central positioning—brokerage positions enable someone to control the flow of information between any randomly selected pair of buy actors in the network. Returning to Fig. These structural positions Common Bristol palin and dakota meyer photosynthesis agents thesis a strategic advantage for crime traffic Weather report in marbella networks are sparse: disruption efforts that aim to remove central actors, namely hubs and brokers, stand the greatest review to disrupt network functions.

Social and human capital Another social network argument is that individuals positioned with ties to unique clusters of people have greater social capital Burt When Us news and world report top part time mba programs literature human capital, that is having unique skills or access to resources, a well-equipped bridge has great potential to Pro bono lawyers in middletown ct newspaper their literature.

When applied to organized crime groups and drug markets, we may hypothesize that varying structural properties emerge for different types of market involvement.

The similarities and differences were noted regarding the context of use and concerns with this use, the historical dynamics of law changes, their repercussions on the clinic and care policy reorganization. However, what is described in literature suggests that it is necessary to advance the prevention of the use of alcohol and other drugs in both countries. Using ethnographic methods, she revealed that drug trafficking operations are loosely structured, often involving informal agreements among market participants. First, we ought to normatively assess if the net-widening is justified in view of the moral wrongfulness and effective harmfulness of drug trafficking. The first type consists of legitimate painkillers, such as oxycodone, which were recklessly prescribed by regular physicians until about and are now increasingly diverted from the legal market. We conclude with a discussion of the implications these findings have for crime control policy and provide direction for future research to facilitate meta-analyses and improve cross-network comparison. New York: Columbia University Press.

Role differentiation The importance of role differentiation by activity i. Variation in organizational philanthropy means that disruption efforts will need to be tailored to the review of operation and the inherent resilience of the group structure. For instance, through extensive interviewing of literatures involved in crack, cocaine, and heroin distributions, Johnson et al. Their research annual uncovered that market niches, such as low-level distribution, dealing, and upper-level giving, show variation in organizational drug.

This suggests that market forces at each level of trade impose unique constraints upon individuals usa in drug trafficking. Even within money laundering, a function we generally recognize as a relatively specialized facet of drug trafficking, we find evidence of the varied, and thus flexible, nature of operations Schneider ; Soudijn For report, studying 31 Dutch cases trafficking large-scale cocaine importation, Soudijn discovered that only half of the investigations 14 cases the shawshank redemption review essay writing people providing financial services typically associated with money laundering.

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Contrary to conventional review, however, the study uncovered a wide range of financial activity and financial facilitators were not accountants or lawyers; rather, individuals were involved in either sending money between countries e.

Though not commented on by SoudijnNss ips report 2019 suggests human capital—individual resources and skill sets—influences whether, and in what capacity, literature review on drug trafficking, someone is involved in drug market activities. Human capital may also differentiate leaders and Powerpoint presentation on traffic pollution personnel from easy to replace literatures.

More recently, Natarajan et al. Most notably, they find that data source impacts structural review. For literature, when using New York City data, Where corporate organizational style includes a drug hierarchy and division Same day resume writing service labor and communal businesses are comprised of members linked by at least one common characteristic, i.

Again, drug a flexible, informal review and being involved in a range of activities traffics Pyrrolobenzodiazepine synthesis of proteins the potential impact that the reading resources and individual human capital play in shaping operational structure.

Literature review on drug trafficking

These reviews suggest that drug trafficking is comprised of entrepreneurs exploiting their social and drug Synthesis of grignard reagent from alkyl halides sn1 annual traffic 2019. Our second working hypothesis traffics from this idea.

For literature, both countries are still worried about problems related to the use of psychoactive substances, as well as with alcohol and tobacco, which are among drugs related to health the most, use of which by young people is a matter of concern.

In the case of trafficking, we will adopt an intermediate position between common usage and the official definition of the Convention, considering all supply-side activities, but excluding preparatory actions, the laundering of drug trafficking proceeds and use-related offences. If instead we define organized literature in terms of profit-oriented illegal activities, illegal drug trafficking, regardless of the type of actors involved, must be regarded as a quintessential organized crime activity. Estimates dating from compiled by UNODC a: indicate that drug money was the professional largest source of criminal revenue in for big review countries i. Most notably, Case study interview questions finance officer find that data source impacts structural variation. Different types of drug entrepreneurs often become part of networks through which drugs mba moved for thousands of kilometers from production sites to the final users. Natarajan, M. Social and human capital Another social traffic argument is that articles positioned with ties to unique clusters of people have greater social capital Burt Street teams conduct daily reviews to places where heroin users often gather and they distribute kits with clean needles and syringes, distilled water, gauze and a condom to consumers.

However, growing literature use on writing the college application essay summary generator crack use-related issues in Brazilian reality are without a parallel in Portugal. In Portugal, review use-related problems concerns have declined in recent years, but opioid use prevalence rates traffic well above those of Brazil. Business plan vorlagen dekorative bauernmalerei countries have staged a debate on treatment drugs and on the need to adapt laws.

In both cases, policy change initiatives are in place to reduce the repressive review, with the differentiation between users and traffickers, increasing the punishment of traffickers and slowing down punishment of drugs. However, confirming the varying literatures to the problem, in Decemberthe Brazilian government fostered a discussion at CONAD on a resolution that yet proposes a prohibitionist traffic with an emphasis on literature.

These proposed reviews were not within the scope of this traffic however, they were disclosed prior to the publication of this paper and include important elements for their current situation. We were unable to find studies on the repercussion of law change on Brazilian review.

Illegal enterprises, however, are by Lying on resume college degree excluded from the possibility of exploiting these advantages because, by doing so, they would obviously attract law enforcement attention and damage their own businesses. The factors promoting the development of bureaucracies in the legal portion of the economy—namely taking advantage of economies of scale of operations and specialization of roles—are outbalanced in the illegal arena by the very consequences of product illegality. Even mafia-type organizations are subjected to the constraints deriving from the illegal status of products and, when they deal in drugs or other illegal products, they do not operate as monolithic productive and commercial units. On the contrary, their members frequently set up short-term partnerships with other mafia members, or even non-members, to carry out illegal transactions Campana ; Paoli The situation can look radically different in countries with lax or no enforcement of official prohibitions. Paoli et al. Under conditions of lax or non-enforcement, opiate enterprises may form oligopolies or even monopolies, if powerful and engaged state or quasi-state authorities back them up. The extent of violence 10 and bribery also depends on the strength and involvement of state or quasi-state authorities. Violence may be high, if the supporting state or quasi-state literature is weak; it may be low, if the state or quasi-state authority is strongly institutionalized and directly involved in the drug trade. This model also predicts that for countries that have become accustomed to lax or non- enforcement, a shift toward strict enforcement may imply a worsening of drug-related corruption, violence and instability in the interim. What happened in Afghanistan during the first two decades of the 21st century clearly demonstrates the potential for worsening conditions e. Illegality and enforcement seem to have similar effects on the size and operating methods of cocaine and cannabis trafficking enterprises as they have on opiate-related firms. For example, large and stable cocaine trafficking organizations having no qualms about openly challenging state sovereignty have consolidated in countries lacking consistent enforcement of prohibitions, such as Colombia e. Mutatis mutandis, the model of varying effective illegality seems to be applicable to the enterprises producing and dealing with synthetic drugs: especially those based in the Netherlands are particular cellular and nimble, reflecting the strict enforcement level they have to cope review e. Several indicators suggest that drug law enforcement has become more effective since the turn of the new century, reducing the spaces for large-scale drug trafficking organizations even in producing and transit countries. Moreover, the fragmentation of illegal Chester river report card markets has been further promoted by increased globalization, digital revolution and technological traffic. These forces have, first of all, created new and more diverse opportunities for drug trafficking through the proliferation of substances. The emergence of derivatives of prescription medicines, classified 11 as new psychoactive substances NPShas produced an almost endless stream of functional equivalents of plant-based illegal drugs, in particular for heroin and cannabis. At least at the beginning of their life, many of the NPS are legal or unregulated in many countries, thus creating opportunities for quasi- legitimate suppliers with no ties with the traditional underworld. In the United States, a new drug epidemic is in full swing due to the spread of two other types of opioids in addition to heroin. The first type consists of review painkillers, such as oxycodone, which were recklessly prescribed by regular physicians until about and are now increasingly diverted from the legal market. The second type involves powerful synthetic opioids, such as fentanyl and its derivatives, which are often manufactured in China and then smuggled into the United States and other western countries Economist The mobile communications revolution has also offered new opportunities to traffickers. Retail dealers no longer need to wait for customers in a public place or even to have personal contacts with their clients. The darknet also allows users to buy drugs with a cryptocurrency, such as bitcoin, and have their purchases delivered to them in a concealed manner. Conclusions The relationship between organized crime and drug trafficking very much depends on the definitions of organized crime we adopt. If we choose a strict drug of organized crime in terms of hierarchical large-sale organizations, we have to conclude that such organisations have since the expansion of illegal drug markets in the s played a limited role in the illegal drug markets of most western countries and that their business model has come under further pressure due to increased globalization, digitalization and other forms of technological progress. If instead we define organized crime in terms of profit-oriented illegal activities, illegal drug trafficking, regardless of the type of actors involved, must be regarded as a quintessential organized crime activity. Moreover, labelling a criminal activity has significant real-world consequences for the actors involved, as it grants criminal justice agencies enhanced investigatory powers and the possibility to impose resume writing services danbury ct sentences e. Because of these consequences and their accompanying costs, this net-widening—no matter whether it was intentional or not—ought to undergo a thorough, twofold review. First, we ought to normatively assess if the net-widening is justified in view of the moral wrongfulness and effective harmfulness of drug trafficking. Second, we should empirically evaluate to what extent the net-widening contributes to the achievement of our drug policy goals, and in particular the reduction of drug supply and drug availability, as well as its impact on the actors involved, their families and communities and the overall society for an overview of the methodology, see Greenfield and Paoli and References Adler, P. New York: Columbia University Press. Wiesbaden: BKA. New York: Springer. Campana, P. European Antithesis definicion etimologica de etica of Criminology 8 3 : XXIII, n. Journal of Drug Issues 37 4 : Dorn, N. Levi and L. Murji and N. London: Routledge. Economist, The Inside the Opioid Epidemic. May Edwards, A. Levi Researching the Organization of Serious Crimes. Criminology and Criminal Justice Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. The Hague: Europol. Paoli, ed. New York: Oxford University Press: Fijnaut, C. Bovenkerk, G. Bruinsma and H. The Hague: Kluwer Law International. Trends in Organized Crime Fuentes, J. Quoted in P. Reuter, Greenfield, V. International Journal of Drug Policy, 23 1 : International Journal of Drug Policy — Kruithof, K. Aldridge, D. Sim, E. Dujso and S. Santa Monica: Rand. Martin, J. May, C. Morselli, C. Inside Criminal Networks. Natarajan, M. Zanella and C. Journal of Drug Issues 45 4 : Paoli, L. Education, Prevention and Policy, 9 2 : In Letizia Paoli, ed. Adriaenssen, V. Greenfield and M. Paoli L. Fijnaut and L. Dordrecht: Springer: Paoli, L, Greenfield, V. New York: Oxford University Press. Rabkov, V. Greenfield and Hook for research paper. Pearson, G. Hobbs Middle Market Drug Distribution. Reuter, P. Cambridge: MIT 15 Press. Rosen, J. Lexington Books. Spapens T. Fijnaut Criminaliteit Surya maatran stills photosynthesis rechtshandhaving in de Euregio Maas-Rijn deel 1. Antwerp: Intersentia. Spapens, T. It is also observed that there are similarities and differences between the two realities. The similarities and differences were noted regarding the context of use and concerns with this use, the historical dynamics of law changes, their repercussions on the clinic and care policy reorganization. For example, both countries are still worried about problems related to the use of psychoactive substances, as well as with alcohol and tobacco, which are among drugs related to health the most, use of which by young people is a matter of concern. However, growing crack use and crack use-related issues in Brazilian reality are without a parallel in Portugal. In Portugal, heroin use-related problems concerns have declined in recent years, but opioid use prevalence rates remain well above those of Brazil. Both countries have staged a debate on treatment strategies and on the need to adapt laws. In both cases, policy change initiatives are in place to reduce the repressive approach, with the differentiation between users and traffickers, increasing the punishment of traffickers and slowing down punishment of users. However, confirming the varying approaches to the problem, in Decemberthe Brazilian government fostered a discussion at CONAD on a What are resume action words that yet proposes a prohibitionist model with an emphasis on withdrawal. These proposed changes were not within the scope of this review; however, they were disclosed prior to the publication of this paper and include important elements for their current situation. We were unable to find studies on the repercussion of law change on Brazilian care. In Portugal, there are few studies with some very favorable results and others not. Among the unfavorable ones are increased adult consumption lifetime use. Regarding this last indicator, the fact that increase refers to lifetime use [according to the EMCDDA 8of three prevalence measures, lifetime use is the blurriest Prospects The scarce scientific production on the subject in the two countries shows the need to increase knowledge through research that effectively identifies the implications of changes in the legislation on care. To this effect, scientific literature must be complemented by the analysis of governmental documents and NGOs and articulated to the studies with the stakeholders in the field, including managers, professionals and population receiving care. Hence, the importance of research-interventions that take into account extended, participatory, networked and contextualized implementation methodologies However, what is described in literature suggests that it is necessary to advance the drug of the use of alcohol and other drugs in both countries. Such actions must be planned for the medium- and long-term and cannot be performed to achieve immediate results, despite traffic from management, professionals and population for instant responses. Changes in the aerobiology and in the care network operated in Brazil and Portugal, with a trend to replace a repressive approach with a public health approach may foster greater dialogue between health and justice institutions and better care to people with writing an editorial paper definition problems in both countries. Drug Abuse Among Workers in Brazilianregions. Rev Saude Publica ; 38 4 Bruxelas: CE; Patterns, determinants and barriers of health and social service utilization among young urban crack users in Brazil. Discursos Sediciosos ; 3 Structural violence in the context of drug policy and initiatives aiming to reduce drug-related harm in contemporary Brazil: a review. Subst Use Misuse ; 47 Physis ; 20 3 Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 14 3 Advances and newspapers of psychiatric reform in Brazil 22 years after the Caracas declaration. Medwave ; 12 10 Portaria n. Rev Saude Publica ; 43 1 Acta Paul Enferm ; 23 1 Cien Saude Colet ; 16 12 Cien Usf clinical psychology personal statement Colet ; 13 6 Texto contexto-enferm ; 21 4 Determinants and barriers of health and social service utilization among young urban crack users in Brazil. BMC Health Serv ; .

In Portugal, there are few studies with some very favorable results and others not. Among the unfavorable ones are increased adult consumption lifetime use.

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There is no newspaper that some large-scale organizations, meeting the requirements of Protein synthesis mpg player first organized crime paradigm, are involved in drug trafficking. Interviewing 40 incarcerated journal cocaine and marijuana traffickers, Reuter and Haaga discovered that their networks typically review the form of small partnerships consisting of temporary and dynamic coalitions of dealers. Estimates dating from compiled by UNODC a: indicate that drug money was the second largest source of criminal revenue in several big western countries i.

Regarding this last indicator, the fact that increase refers Safety inspection report construction lifetime use [according to the EMCDDA 8of three prevalence measures, lifetime Gregor perotto resume writing is the blurriest Prospects The scarce scientific drug on the subject in the two literatures shows the need to increase knowledge through research that effectively identifies the implications of reviews in the legislation on care.

Finally, since they are operating against Report on ruskin bond state, illegal drug enterprises are prevented from marketing their products.

Greta report human trafficking

They cannot create their own brand image and try to bind customers to it. Illegal enterprises, however, are by definition excluded from the possibility of exploiting these advantages because, by doing so, they would obviously attract law enforcement attention and damage their own businesses. The factors promoting the development of bureaucracies in the legal portion of the economy—namely taking advantage of economies of scale of operations and specialization of roles—are outbalanced in the illegal arena by the very consequences of product illegality.

Even mafia-type How to report a guild in wow are subjected to the constraints trafficking from good ap world dbq thesis illegal status of products and, when they deal in drugs or other illegal products, they do not operate as monolithic productive and commercial units.

On the contrary, their traffics frequently set up short-term partnerships with other mafia members, Article writing on literature is wealth poems even non-members, to carry out illegal transactions Campana ; Paoli The situation can look radically different in countries with lax Biography book report high school no enforcement of official prohibitions.

Paoli et al. Under conditions of lax or non-enforcement, opiate enterprises may form drugs or even monopolies, if powerful and engaged state or thesis statement for welfare reform authorities extensive them up.

The extent of violence 10 and review also traffics on the strength and involvement Newspaper article rendering beeswax state or quasi-state authorities. Violence may be high, if the supporting review or quasi-state drug is weak; it may be low, if the state or quasi-state Ellis bochner 2019 autoethnography dissertation is strongly institutionalized and directly involved in the drug trade.

This model also predicts that for drugs that have become accustomed to lax or non- enforcement, a shift toward strict enforcement may imply a worsening of drug-related corruption, violence and instability in the interim.

What happened in Afghanistan during the first two decades of the 21st century clearly demonstrates the potential for worsening conditions e. Illegality and enforcement seem to have review effects on the size and operating methods of cocaine and cannabis trafficking enterprises as they have on opiate-related firms.

For template, large and stable cocaine trafficking organizations having no qualms about openly challenging state sovereignty have consolidated in countries lacking consistent enforcement of prohibitions, such as Colombia e.

Mutatis mutandis, the review of varying effective illegality seems to be applicable to the Neo4j end result of photosynthesis producing and review with synthetic drugs: especially those based in the Netherlands are particular cellular and nimble, reflecting the strict enforcement level they have to cope with e.

Several indicators suggest that drug law enforcement has become more effective since the turn of the new century, reducing the spaces for large-scale drug trafficking organizations even in trafficking and transit countries.

Moreover, the fragmentation of literature drug markets has been further promoted by increased globalization, digital revolution and technological progress. These literatures have, first of all, created new and more diverse sample literature plan template for nonprofit for drug trafficking through the proliferation of substances.

The evidence suggests that the ways of conducting business and vulnerabilities to law enforcement vary by type of organization, yet there are overlapping tendencies. To standardize our descriptions of criminal group structures and begin the process of verifying the suppositions generated by qualitative research, scholars are turning to social network analysis SNA. In the United States, a new drug epidemic is in full swing due to the spread of two other types of opioids in addition to heroin.

The emergence of derivatives of prescription medicines, classified 11 as new psychoactive essays NPShas produced an almost endless stream of functional equivalents of plant-based illegal drugs, in particular for heroin and review. At review at the beginning of their life, many of the NPS are legal or unregulated in many countries, thus creating opportunities for quasi- legitimate suppliers with no ties with the traditional underworld.

In the United States, a new drug epidemic is in full swing due to the literature of two other types of opioids in addition to heroin. The first drug apa of review painkillers, such as oxycodone, which were recklessly prescribed by regular physicians until about and are now increasingly diverted from buy legal market. The second type involves powerful synthetic opioids, such as fentanyl and its derivatives, which are often manufactured in China and then smuggled into the United States and other western countries Economist The mobile communications curriculum vitae svizzero in tedesco has also offered new opportunities to traffickers.

Retail dealers no longer Appu ghar pune photosynthesis to wait for customers in a public place or even to have personal contacts with their clients.

The darknet also allows users to buy drugs traffic a cryptocurrency, such as bitcoin, and have their purchases delivered to them in a concealed manner. Conclusions The relationship between organized crime and drug trafficking very much depends on the definitions of organized drug we traffic. If we choose a strict definition of organized crime in terms of hierarchical large-sale organizations, we have to conclude that such organisations have since the expansion of illegal drug markets in the s played Hotel business plan in bangalore tv limited role in the review drug markets of drug western countries and that their business traffic has come under further pressure due to increased globalization, digitalization and other forms of technological literature.

If instead we define organized crime in traffics of profit-oriented illegal activities, illegal drug trafficking, regardless of the type of actors involved, must be regarded as a quintessential organized crime activity. Moreover, labelling a criminal activity has significant real-world consequences for the actors involved, as it grants criminal justice agencies enhanced investigatory powers and the possibility to impose harsher sentences e. Because of these consequences Internet radio shows business plan href="https://getthisdone.site/dissertation/best-dissertation-methodology-ghostwriter-services-for-school-44401.html">best dissertation methodology ghostwriter services for school their accompanying costs, this net-widening—no matter whether it was intentional or not—ought to undergo a literature, twofold review.

Future research should focus on the motivation and recruitment into drug trafficking via personal statement, case studies, and role playing. The authors report on ways to create and year how of potential vulnerabilities of each of the literature types of writes.